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*Unit 8 Topics
Aldehydes and Ketones
Alkenes and Alkynes
Amines and Amides
An overview of molarity problem
Atomic Mass and Avogadro's Hypothesis
atomic number and mass
Balancing Chemical Reaction Equations
Basic Science definitions.
Calculations involving the Mole and the Mass of a Substance and the Volume of a gas
Calculations involving the Mole and the Volume of a gas and the Number of Particles
Certain & Uncertain Digits, Defined Numbers and Accuracy & Precision
Chemical Equations and the Conservation Laws
Chemical families -- by Judy Bai
Classification of matter
Concentration of ions in Solution
Constructing the name of an Ionic Compound
Derived Quantities and Density
Early atomic models
Electrostatic forces, electron shells, Valence electrons and valence of an atom
Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions
Ethers and Carboxylic Acids
History of the period table
How to Classify Atoms and Ions
How to Read a Scale
INTERMOLECULAR FORCES AND BONDING
Introduction to functional groups and Alcohols---Elizabeth
Introduction to organic chemistry and hydrocarbon
Ionization energy, Electron Affinity, Atomic Radius
Isotopes and their mixtures
Lab safety 2
Later atomic models
Lewis Dot Diagrams of Neutral Atoms, Monatomic Ions,and Ionic Compounds
LIine spectra, electron shells and energy level diagrams
Mixing Two Solutions and Making Dilute Solutions
Molar Concentrations and Making up Solutions
Multiple conversions between moles,mass, volume and number of particles
Multiplying & Dividing and Adding and Subtracting with Sig Figs
Naming Hydrates and Naming Compounds Using the Prefix System
Naming Monatomic and Polyatomic Ions
Percent Yield and Purity
Phase Changes--by AnnYU
Phases, the Magic 7 and Chemical Word Equation
polar and nonpolar solvents
SI Units and Metric Unit conversions
Significant Figures & Zeros
Solutions and Solubility Introduction
Solving Problems that Involve Multiple Operations and Sig Figs
Stoichiometery calculation involvingMoles, Mass, Gas volume and Molecules
Stoichiometry Calculations Involving Molar Concentration
Stoichiometry of Excess Quantities
The Conductivity of Aqueous solutions
The Major divisions of the periodic table & Metals Non-metals and semi conductors
The Meaning of Stoichiometry and the Coefficients in a Reaction Equation
The Mole Concept and Finding Molar Mass
The nature of covalenting bonding & Predicting the formula of covalent bonds
The nature of solutions of ions
The Physical separation of substances
THE PHYSICCAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The role of Kinetic Energy in Phase Changes
TO DRAW A Lewis dot diagrams of covalent compounds
Types of Chemical Reactions - Combustion (Pt.2) &Summary
Types of Chemical Reactions - First 4 Types
Unbranched Alkanes and their Geometry
When to use each separation method
Writing electron configurations of atoms in full and core notation
Writing electron configurations of ions, and the copper and chromium exceptions
Classification of matter
The Classification of matter
1.Before we classify matter, we should know:
Basically, people classify matter according to their
Any part of the universe that is being studied in a given situation is a
. Inside a system, means matter that have the same chemical and physical properties evenly is a
→ 【1】Two phases are contained in this cup of drink，because the drink inside have two colours and they have a clear distinction. One is in colour red and the colour is very bright while the other one is in colour yellow and it looks cloudy.
Matter are made by particles such as atoms
(the smallest possible unit of an element which remains the properties of the element)
(a group of two or more kinds of atoms held together by electrical forces)
These fundamental parts of the world are important in classifying matter.
2. Two ways of classification:
1)In our textbooks，the author classify things according to their phases
All substances can be divided into two categories:
Heterogeneous substances are multi-phases substances, it means they have more than one phase. Contrary to this, homogeneous substances are substances with only one phase.
【2】This's a photo of the chart on the text book
can be divided into
(can be written in a chemical formula and have unchange properties) and
which has variable composition.
【3】This is a picture from
. It presents a homogeneous matter inside, because the cup only have one phase inside.
If there is only one kind of atom presented in the pure substance, we consider it as an element. Because the definition of
any substances that can not be seperated into simpler form by chemical process.
For example: A pure piece of iron can be written as Fe and there's only one kind of atom presented in this substance.
→【4】This is a picture from
g08viiia8fe.htm, it's an example of an element Fe.
f more than one type of atom is presented in the pure substance, it is considered a compound. Because
a compound is a pure substance made of 2 or more types of atoms
However, only one type of molecule is presented in a compound.
For example: Pure water is H
O and there is only one molecule presented in the sustance
→【5】A picture from
, it shows the structure of a compound.
f a substance is homogeneous, but more than one kind of molecule in it, we classify it as a solution
The definition of a solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
A solution does not need to be a liquid!!
→【6】A Stainless steel is a group of iron-based metal containing at least 10% alloy metals. It is homogeneous and it has more than one kind of molecule in it. Therefore, it is a kind of solution.
If the substance has more than one phase, we classify it as a
and because it's
a mixture of two or more substances
we consider it as a
→This is an example for mechanical mixture.
n conclusion, when there is a substance need to be classified
1. State it's homogeneous or heterogeneous substance.
2. If it is a heterogeneous mixture, it's a mechanical mixture.
3. If it is a homogeneous mixture, try to write it's chemical formula.
4. If it contains variable formulas, it's a solution.
5. If the formula contains a molecule, it's a compound.
6. If the formula contains only one kind of atom, it's an element.
2)Actually, matters can be classified into mixtures or pure substances as well
The advantage of this kind of classification is the differences between pure substances and mixture are showed clearly instead of having mixtures in two branches.
Because we have already understand all the terms, we can directly conclude the process as:
1. Write the chemical formula for the substances.
2. State whether it's a pure matter or a mixture.
3. If it can be written in a chemical formula and the formula contains a molecule, it's a compound.
4. If the formula has only one atom, it's an element.
5. If it's cannot be written in a chemical formula, and it has only one phase, it's a homogenous mixture.
6. If it has more than one phase, it's a heterogenous mixture.
【2】<Hebden: Chemistry 11> by James A. Hebden, Ph.D. P49, P50, P51, P52
g08viiia8fe.htm, it's an example of an element Fe.//
【5】A picture from
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